The journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences endorse the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) Policy Statement on Geopolitical Intrusion on Editorial Decisions, the Council of Science Editors’ White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.
Submitting a manuscript to a journal published by Alborz University
of Medical Sciences implies that all contributors listed as authors have
read and agreed to the content of the submitted work and that the
submission observes the policies of the journal.
Table of contents
- Ethics and consent
- Trial registration
- Standards of reporting
- Competing interests
- Unique identifiers
- Duplicate publication
- Text recycling
- Peer review
- Corrections and retractions
Ethics and consent
The journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences follow the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and adhere to its Best Practice Guidelines.
Every submission reporting a research must include a statement to
verify that ethics approval was sought for the study (or a statement
that it was not required and why), including the name of the ethics
committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the reference number/ID
of the approval(s), and a statement that participants gave informed
consent before participating. Even when a study has been approved by a
research ethics committee or institutional review board, editors may ask
authors for more detailed information about the ethics of the work.
Also, research involving human subjects, human tissue, or human data
must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and
must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. Submissions
may be declined if the journals’ editors come to conclusion that a
research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical
framework. The editors may also contact the institutions’ ethics
committee for further information in certain cases.
Allegations of publication misconduct, both before and after
publication will be carefully inspected and we reserve the right to
contact authors' institutions, funders, or regulatory bodies if
necessary. If a conclusive evidence of misconduct is noticed, proper
steps will be taken to correct the scientific record, which may include
supplying a correction or retraction.
Authors are assumed that they are aware of publication ethics,
specifically with regard to authorship, dual submission, plagiarism,
figure manipulation, competing interests and compliance with standards
of research ethics. In cases of suspected misconduct, COPE standards and
practices will be followed and advice from the COPE forum will be
Retrospective ethics approval
If a study has not been granted ethics committee approval prior to
commencing, retrospective ethics approval usually cannot be obtained and
it may not be possible to consider the submission for peer review. The
decision on whether to proceed to peer review in such cases is at the
discretion of the journals’ editors.
Patient consent and confidentiality
Any item submitted to the journals published by Alborz University of
Medical Sciences that contains personal medical information about an
identifiable living individual requires patient’s explicit consent
before it can be published. Consequently; all studied patients are
required to sign an informed consent form after reading the studies’
If consent cannot be obtained because the patient cannot be traced in
a study, then publication will be possible only if the information can
be sufficiently anonymized. Anonymization means that neither the person
nor anyone else could identify the individual with certainty.
If the patient is dead the authors should seek permission from a
relative (as a matter of courtesy and medical ethics). If the relatives
are not contactable, the journals will balance the worthwhileness of the
case, the likelihood of identification, and the likelihood of offence
in decision to publish a submitted paper.
Images—such as x-rays, laparoscopic images, ultrasound images,
pathology slides, or images of undistinctive parts of the body—may be
used without consent so long as they are anonymized by the removal of
any identifying marks and are not accompanied by text that could reveal
the patients’ identity.
Research involving animals
Experimental research on vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates
must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines,
and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics
committee. The Basel Declaration outlines
fundamental principles to adhere when conducting research on animals
and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has
also published ethical guidelines.
For experimental studies involving client-owned animals, authors must
also document informed consent from the client or owner and adherence
to a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care.
Based on the ICMJE recommendations
a clinical trial is defined as “any research project that prospectively
assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without
concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the cause-and-effect,
relationship between a health-related intervention and a health
In agreement with the ICMJE’s
recommendations, all journals published by Alborz University of Medical
Sciences will not consider reports of clinical trials unless they were
registered prospectively before recruitment of any participants.
As a condition of consideration for publication, journals published
by the Alborz University of Medical Sciences require registration of all
trials in a public registry of trials approved by the ICMJE (any
registry that is a primary register of the WHO International Clinical
Trials Registry Platformwww.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/index.html).
The trial registration number and the date of registration should be included in the last line of the submission abstract.
Standards of reporting
Authors are encouraged to use the relevant research reporting guidelines for the study type provided by the EQUATOR Network when
preparing their manuscript. Authors should adhere to these guidelines
when drafting their manuscript, and peer reviewers will be asked to
refer to these checklists when evaluating such studies. This will ensure
that the authors have provided enough information for editors, peer
reviewers, and readers to understand how the research was performed and
to judge whether the findings are likely to be reliable.
The key reporting guidelines are:
Authors are requested to include full information about the applied
statistical methods and measures in their research, including
justification of the appropriateness of the statistical test used (see
the SAMPL guidelines for
more information). Reviewers will be asked to check the statistical
methods, and the submission may be sent for statistical review by
specialists if considered necessary. The editors may also consult a
specialist in the field of methodology.
A competing interest is anything that interferes with, or could
reasonably be perceived as interfering with, the full and objective
presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, or publication of
research or non-research articles submitted to the journals published by
Alborz University of Medical Sciences.
A competing interest exists when professional judgment concerning a
primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research)
may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial
gain,—employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, honoraria,
patents, and paid expert—testimony or personal relationship). There is
nothing unethical about a competing interest but it should be
acknowledged and clearly stated. All authors must declare all competing
interests in their covering letter and in the “competing interests”
section upon submission. Where authors have no competing interests, the
statement should read “The author(s) declare(s) that they have no
competing interests with regards to authorship and/or publication of
this article.” The Editor may ask for further information relating to
Editors and reviewers are also required to declare any competing
interests and will be excluded from the peer review process if a
competing interest exists.
The policy of Alborz University of Medical Sciences is that none of
the journals’ editors should have any financial relationship with any
Declaring all potential competing interests is a requirement and is
integral to the transparent reporting of research. Failure to declare
competing interests can result in immediate rejection of a manuscript.
If an undisclosed competing interest comes to light after publication,
Alborz University of Medical Sciences will take action in accordance
with COPE guidelines and issue a public notification to the community.
Competing interests can be financial or non-financial, professional,
or personal. Competing interests can arise in relation to an
organization or a person.
Financial competing interests
Financial competing interests include (but are not limited to):
- Receiving reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an
organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the
publication of the manuscript, either now or in the future.
- Holding stocks or shares in an organization that may in any way
gain or lose financially from the publication of the manuscript, either
now or in the future.
- Holding, or currently applying for patents relating to the content of the manuscript.
- Receiving reimbursements, fees, funding or salary from an
organization that holds or has applied for patents relating to the
content of the manuscript.
Non-financial competing interests
Non-financial competing interests include (but are not limited to)
political, personal, ideological, academic, and intellectual competing
Authors from pharmaceutical companies, or other commercial
organizations that sponsor clinical trials, should declare these as
competing interests on submission. They should also adhere to the Good Publication Practice guidelines for pharmaceutical companies(GPP2),
which are designed to ensure that publications are produced in a
responsible and ethical manner. The guidelines also apply to any
companies or individuals that work on industry-sponsored publications,
such as freelance writers, contract research organizations and
communications companies. Alborz University of Medical Sciences will not
publish advertorial content.
An 'author' is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study.
The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:
1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data.
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
3. Final approval of the version published.
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in
ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part
of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work the
authors have done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors
are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition,
authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of
their coauthors. All those designated as authors should meet all four
criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be
identified as authors.
Participation solely in the acquisition of funding, gathering of the
data, technical help, writing assistance and general supervision of the
research group does not warrant authorship. Those individuals who do not
meet all four criteria should appear in the “Acknowledgments” section.
The individuals who provided assistance to the submitted work, who do
not meet all four criteria of authorship, should be recognized by
listing their names and contribution in the “Acknowledgments” section.
The authors have to guarantee that anyone named in the
“Acknowledgements” section has granted its clearance for permission to
be listed for the stated contributions towards the work.
Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. All
sources of grant and other support for the project or study, including
funds received from contributors, institutions and commercial sources
are required to be reported. Consultancies and funds paid directly to
investigators must also be listed. The involvement of scientific
(medical) writers or anyone else who assisted with the preparation of
the manuscript content should be acknowledged, along with their source
of funding, as described in the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA) guidelines.
Author information is published by the journals so that the authors
and their institutes be recognizable for the scientific community.
Author information is also used to retrieve records in databases and
bibliographic indexes, and yet many databases either do not include or
do not list all author information. We recognize that some authors have
multi-part first, middle or last names and that some authors do not have
a middle name, but a part of their first or last name has been used
previously to provide a middle name initial in another publication. It
is the policy of the journals published by Alborz University of Medical
Sciences to publish author information, including their names and
affiliations in the same format supplied by the corresponding author
upon submission. To ensure that publications have correct author
information, to avoid any errors regarding how a certain author name
should be spelled or supplied to bibliographic indexes and databases and
to keep changes in proofing of the articles or corrections after their
publication to a minimum, the authors submitting to the journals
published by the Alborz University of Medical Sciences are required,
upon submission, to review and approve an automatically-generated
presentation of author information, as in a published record, based on
their provided information. This includes how author information will
appear in databases like PubMed or Scopus. Therefore, the authors should
enter their information in the provided submission area in a way that
is bibliographically consistent with their previous publications.
Any change in authorship (i.e. order, addition, and deletion of
authors) after initial submission must be approved by all authors.
Authors should determine and come to an agreement about the order of
authorship among themselves. In addition, any alterations must be
clarified to the editor. In line with COPE guidelines,
Alborz University of Medical Sciences requires written confirmation
from all authors that they agree with any proposed changes in authorship
of submission(s) or published item(s). This confirmation must be via
direct email from each author. It is the corresponding author’s
responsibility to ensure that all authors confirm they agree with the
proposed changes. If there is disagreement amongst the authors
concerning authorship and a satisfactory agreement cannot be reached,
the authors must contact their institution(s) for a resolution. It is
not the journal editor’s responsibility to resolve authorship disputes. A
change in authorship of a published article can only be amended via
publication of an Erratum.
Researcher and Contributor ID) is an open, non-profit, community-based
effort to provide a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a
transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these
identifiers. Scopus author ID is
another unique identifier. Alborz University of Medical Sciences
encourages use of these unique identifiers to identify the individuals
who submit a work to the journals or those who are selected as reviewers
to undertake the peer-review of submissions for the journals. The
editorial team members of the journals also include their unique
identifiers in their profiles.
Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review,
and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature
in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation
or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite
is strongly discouraged.
Authors should consider the following guidelines when preparing their manuscript:
- Any statement in the manuscript that relies on external sources
of information (i.e. not the authors' own new ideas or findings or
general knowledge) should use a citation.
- Authors should avoid citing derivations of original work. For
example, they should cite the original work rather than a review article
that cites an original work.
- Authors should ensure that their citations are accurate (i.e.
they should ensure the citation supports the statement made in their
manuscript and should not misrepresent another work by citing it if it
does not support the point the authors wish to make).
- Authors should not cite sources that they have not read.
- Authors should not preferentially cite their own or their friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications.
- Authors should avoid citing work solely from one country.
- Authors should not use an excessive number of citations to support one point.
- Ideally, authors should cite sources that have undergone peer review where possible.
- Authors should not cite advertisements or advertorial material.
Any manuscript that is submitted to a journal published by Alborz
University of Medical Sciences must be original and the manuscript or
substantial parts of it, must not be under consideration by any other
journal. In any case where there is the potential for overlap or
duplication we require authors to be transparent. Authors should declare
any potentially overlapping publications on submission and where
possible, upload these as additional files with the manuscript. Any
overlapping publications should be cited. Any ‘in press’ or unpublished
manuscript cited or relevant to the Editor’s and reviewers' assessment
of the manuscript, should be made available if requested by the Editor.
Alborz University of Medical Sciences reserves the right to judge
potentially overlapping or redundant publications on a case-by-case
In general, the submitted manuscript should not already have been
formally published in any journal or in any other citable form. If
justified and made clear upon submission, there are exceptions to this
rule, such as publication in the form of a poster or conference
The journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences use CrossCheck’s
plagiarism detection technology and take seriously all cases of
publication misconduct. Any suspected cases of covert duplicate
manuscript submission will be handled as outlined in the COPE guidelines and
the Editor may contact the authors’ institution. Alborz University of
Medical Sciences endorses the policies of the ICMJE in relation to overlapping publications.
Pre-print servers and author/institutional repositories
Posting a manuscript on a pre-print server such as ArXiv, BioRxiv, PeerJ PrePrints,
or similar platforms (both commercial and non-commercial) is not
considered to be duplicate publication. The journals published by Alborz
University of Medical Sciences will also consider peer reviewing
manuscripts that have been posted on an author's personal or
institutional website. Material that has formed part of an academic
thesis and been placed in the public domain, as required by the awarding
institution, will also be considered by journals published by Alborz
University of Medical Sciences.
Summary clinical trial results in public registries
Posting of summary clinical trial results in publicly accessible
databases is generally not considered duplicate publication. Alborz
University of Medical Sciences requires authors of manuscripts reporting
clinical trials to have registered their trial in a suitably accessible
Authors should be aware that replication of text from their own
previous publications is text recycling (also referred to as
self-plagiarism) and in some cases is considered unacceptable. Where
overlap of text with authors’ own previous publications is necessary or
unavoidable, duplication must always be reported transparently and be
properly attributed and be compliant with copyright requirements. If a
submission contains text that has been published elsewhere, authors
should notify the journal editors in the submission cover letter.
All research articles, and most other article types, published by the
journals of Alborz University of Medical Sciences undergo a thorough
peer review process. This usually involves review by two independent
peer reviewers. Individual journals may differ in their peer review
processes. For an individual journal’s peer review policy, please see
the journal website.
Peer review policy
All submissions to journals published by Alborz University of Medical
Sciences are assessed by an editor, who will decide whether they are
suitable for peer review. Where an editor is on the author list or has
any other competing interest regarding a specific submission, another
member of the editorial board will be assigned to assume responsibility
for overseeing peer review. Submissions felt to be suitable for
consideration will be sent for peer review by appropriate independent
experts. Editors will make a decision based on the reviewers’ reports
and authors are sent these reports along with the editorial decision on
their manuscript. Authors should note that even in light of one positive
report, concerns raised by another reviewer may fundamentally undermine
the study and result in the manuscript being rejected.
All journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences
operate a closed double-blind peer review process. The authors and the
reviewers will be treated anonymously.
Authors may suggest potential reviewers if they wish; however,
decision to consider these reviewers is at the editor's discretion.
Authors should not suggest recent collaborators or colleagues who work
in the same institution as themselves. Authors who wish to suggest peer
reviewers can do so in the cover letter and should provide institutional
email addresses where possible or information which will help the
Editor to verify and identity the potential introduced reviewer (for
example an ORCID or Scopus ID).
Authors may request exclusion of individuals as peer reviewers, but they
should explain the reasons in their cover letter on submission. Authors
should not exclude too many individuals as this may hinder the peer
review process. Please note that the editor may choose to invite
excluded peer reviewers.
Intentionally falsifying information, for example, suggesting reviewers
with a false name or email address, will result in rejection of the
manuscript and may lead to further investigation in line with our
Editors will treat all submission to their journal in confidence.
Reviewers are also required to treat manuscripts confidentially.
Journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences will not
share manuscripts with third parties, except in cases of suspected
misconduct. See our Misconduct policy for further information.
Alborz University of Medical Sciences takes seriously all allegations
of potential misconduct. The journals published by Alborz University of
Medical Sciences follow the COPE guidelines to deal with cases of suspected misconduct.
In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be
necessary for the editor to contact and share manuscripts with third
parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and ethics committee(s).
Alborz University of Medical Sciences may also seek advice from COPE and discuss anonymized cases in the COPE Forum.
All research involving humans (including human data and human
material) and animals must have been carried out within an appropriate
ethical. If there is suspicion that research has not taken place within
an appropriate ethical framework, the editor may reject a manuscript and
may inform third parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and
In cases of proven research misconduct involving published articles,
or where the scientific integrity of the article is significantly
undermined, articles may be retracted.
All journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences will follow the COPE guidelines to deal with cases of potential publication misconduct.
- All digital images in manuscripts considered for publication
will be scrutinized for any indication of manipulation that is
inconsistent with the following guidelines. Manipulation that violates
these guidelines may result in delays in manuscript processing or
rejection, or retraction of a published article.
- No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.
- The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel or
from different gels, fields or exposures must be made explicit by the
arrangement of the figure (i.e. using dividing lines) and in the text of
the figure legend.
- Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are
acceptable if they are applied to every pixel in the image and as long
as they do not obscure, eliminate or misrepresent any information
present in the original, including the background. Non-linear
adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the
Any questions raised during or after the peer review process will be
referred to the editor, who will request the original data from the
author(s) for comparison with the prepared figures. If the original data
cannot be produced, the submission may be rejected or in the case of a
published article, retracted. Any case in which the manipulation affects
the interpretation of the data will result in rejection or retraction.
Cases of suspected misconduct will be reported to the author(s)’
Journals published by Alborz University of Medical Sciences use
iThenticate software, which is a plagiarism detector service that
verifies the originality of the submission content before publication.
If plagiarism is identified, we will follow COPE guidelines.
Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to:
- Directly copying text from other sources
- Copying ideas, images, or data from other sources
- Reusing text from your own previous publications
- Using an idea from another source with slightly modified language
If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the
submission may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication,
we reserve the right to issue a correction or retract the paper, as
appropriate. We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions about
plagiarism detected either before or after publication.
Corrections and retractions
Rarely, it may be necessary for Alborz University of Medical Sciences
to publish corrections to or retractions of articles published in its
journals to maintain the integrity of the academic record.
In line with accepted norms of the academic community, corrections
to, or retractions of published articles will be made by publishing an
Erratum or a Retraction article, without altering the original article
in any way other than to add a prominent link to the Erratum/Retraction
article. The original article remains in the public domain and the
subsequent Erratum or Retraction will be widely indexed. In the
exceptional event that material is considered to infringe certain rights
or is defamatory, we may have to remove that material from our site and
It may be possible for minor corrections to published articles to be
made by the original author(s) posting a comment on the published
article. This would only be appropriate where the changes do not affect
the results or conclusions of the article.
Changes to published articles that affect the interpretation and
conclusion of the article, but do not fully invalidate the article,
will, at the editor(s)’ discretion, be corrected via publication of an
Erratum that is indexed and linked to the original article. Changes in
authorship of published articles are corrected via an Erratum.
On rare occasions, when the scientific information in an article is
substantially undermined, it may be necessary for published articles to
be retracted. Alborz University of Medical Sciences will follow the COPE guidelines in such cases. Retracted articles are indexed and linked to the original article.